Carbon di-sulfide (CS2) induced chromosomal alterations and apoptosis in circulated blood lymphocytes of personnel working in viscose industry

Manikantan Pappuswamy, Rajkumar Sundrama, Karishankar K, Thirunavukkarasu P


Circulated blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 41 workers occupationally exposed to Carbon di-sulfide (CS2) exposed from viscose industry were investigated to collect data on the effects and to find a possible relationship between in-vivo CS2 induced apoptosis and genotoxic effects. The subjects were divided into three groups: 41 subjects exposed to CS2 together with various confounding factors, another 41subjects inhabitants of Viscose industry partially exposed to CS2 in longperiods. The results were compared with 41 control subjects without known occupational exposure. Ambient air concentrations of CS2 were measured in different work places. Measures of genotoxicity included the determination of the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), HPRT mutations (variant frequency, VF) and the measurement of UV-induced unscheduled DNA-repair synthesis (UDS). The percentages of premature centromere division (PCD) and of cells with a high frequency of SCE (HF/SCE) were also scored. Apoptosis and cell proliferation were determined by flow cytometry. In both CS2 exposed groups, the apoptotic activity and the CA levels in PBLs were significantly higher than in controls. The CA was mostly breaks of the chromatid type. In the second group, which was partially exposed to CS2, CA were slightly lower in comparison with group I fully exposed to CS2 and other confounding factors, which may be attributed to a different rate of elimination of damaged lymphocytes as a consequence of CS2 induced apoptotic activity. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that exposure to CS2 induces apoptosis and CA, indicating an excess cancer risk among subjects occupationally exposed to CS2. The results also emphasize the importance of the measurement of occupationally exposed pollutants, such as CS2, in order to avoid genotoxic effects in the workers also habit of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the viscose workers had a synergistic effect on inducing cancer risk.

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