GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Case-Control Study of the Sudanese Population

ibrahim Osman





Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme levels are associated with risk of many type of cancers, including hematological malignancies. In this study we here aimed to investigate the relationship between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and the risk of AML. Conflicts in the published results and the absence of similar in depth studies in Sudan prompted us to perform the present case-control study of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and their possible association with AML in a Sudanese population.

Materials and Methods

A total of 40 patients with AML and 40 control subjects were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected from all patients in EDTA containing tubes. Genomic DNA was extracted from all blood samples using salting out method. Genotyping for detection of GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms was performed for both patients and controls using a multiplex PCR.


We reported that there is an association between the GSTM1 null genotype and AML risk (OR= 2.7, 95% CI= 1.2-6.04; P.value = 0.012), the GSTT1 null genotype appeared also to have an influence in the development of AML (OR= 4.93, 95% CI= 1.6-15.07; P.value = 0.005).

Conclusion: These findings indicate that genetic variants of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes may increase individual susceptibility to AML.

Keywords: AML- GSTM1- GSTT1- genetic polymorphism, Risk 

Full Text:



Hayes JD, Flanagan JU, Jowsey IR. Glutathione transferases. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005; 45, 51-88.

Hayes JD, Pulford, DJ. The glutathione S-transferase supergene family: Regulation of GST and the contributions of the isoenzymes to cancer chemoprotection and drug resistance. CRC Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 1995;30, 445-600.

Benabdelkrim M , Djeffal O , Berredjem H. GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study of the Algerian Population. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2018; 19(10), pp.2853-2858.

Strange RC, Spiteri MA, Ramachandran S, Fryer AA. Glutathione-S-transferase family of enzymes. Mutat Res. 2001; 482, 21-6.

Wilson MH, Grant PJ, Hardie LJ, Wild CP. Glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype is associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction. FASEB J. 2000; 14:791-6

Ryberg D, Skaug V, Hewer A, Phillips DH, Harries LW, Wolf CR, et al. Genotypes of glutathione transferase M1 and P1 and their significance for lung DNA adduct levels and cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 1997; 18:1285-9.

Rollinson S, Roddam P, Kane E, Roman E, Cartwright R, Jack A, et al. Polymorphic variation within the glutathione S-transferase genes and risk of adult acute leukemia. Carcinogenesis. 2000; 21:43-7.

Stanulla M, Schrappe M, Brechlin AM, Zimmermann M, Welte K. Polymorphisms within glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1) and risk of relapse in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A case-control study. Blood .2000.;95:1222-8

Davies SM, Robison LL, Buckley JD, Tjoa T, Woods WG, Radloff GA, et al. Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and outcome of chemotherapy in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19:1279-87.

Miller S, Dykes D, Polesky H. A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988; 16:1215

Abdel-Rahman S, El-Zein R, Anwar W, Au W. A multiplex PCR procedure for polymorphic analysis of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in population studies. Cancer Letters. 1996;107(2):229-233.

Zhou, L., Zhu, Y., Zhang, X., Li, Y. and Liu, Z. Risk Effects of GST Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Prospective Study. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013; 14(6), pp.3861-3864.

Nasr, A., Sami, R., Ibrahim, N., & Darwish, D. Glutathione S transferase (GSTP 1, GSTM 1, and GSTT 1) gene polymorphisms in egyptian patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Indian Journal of Cancer. 2015; 52(4)

Crump C, Chen C, Appelbaum FR, et al. Glutathione S-transferase theta 1 gene deletion and risk of acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000; 9, 457-60

Arruda VR, Lima CS, Grignoli CR, et al. Increased risk for acute myeloid leukaemia in individuals with glutathioneS-transferase mu (GSTM1) and theta 1 (GSTT1) gene defects. Eur J Haematol. 2001; 66, 383-8.

Liu QX, Chen HC, Liu XF, et al .Study on the relationship between polymorphisms of Cyp1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 genes and the susceptibility to acute leukemia in the general population of Hunan province. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2005; 26, 975-9

Kim HN, Kim NY, Yu L, et al. Association of GSTT1 polymorphism with acute myeloid leukemia risk is dependent on smoking status. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012; 53, 681-7.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Biology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.





Asia Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 

West Asia Organization for Cancer Prevention